More than Muses

Annotated Bibliography

Bolufer Peruga, Mónica. "¿Escribir la experiencia? Familia, identidad y reflexión intelectual en Inés Joyes (s. XVIII)." Arenal: Revista de la Historia de las Mujeres, vol. 13, no. 1, 2, p. 83-105.

Barker, Joanna M. "Inés Joyes y Blake and the War Between the Sexes." In Defence of Women, vol. 14, Cambridge, Modern Humanities Research Association, 2, p. 132-55.

Tolliver, Joyce. "'My Distinguished Friend and Colleague Tula': Emilia Pardo Bazán and Literary-Feminist Polemics." Recovering Spain's Feminist Tradition, New York, Modern Language Association, 2, p. 217-37.

Vollendorf, Lisa. "'No Doubt It Will Amaze You': María de Zayas’ Early Modern Feminism." Recovering Spain's Feminist Tradition, New York, Modern Language Association, 2, p. 103-20.

Allen, Guinevere W. "Ovidian Lyric Voice in the Iberian Baroque." Hispanic Review, vol. 82, no. 4, 2, p. 445-63.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

Provides an analysis of how the myth of Echo and Narcissus as recounted by Ovid is an integral part of Iberian Baroque writing. Allen discusses gender dynamics and discourse within the genre, specifically in the work of Luis de Góngora, Sóror Violante do Céu, and Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz. Allen also addresses specific poetic elements and how they affect the composition of the work. The influence of gongorismo on Sóror Violante’s writing is noted and considered as part of the analysis of her work.

Augusto, Sara. "A Multiplicação Das Fábulas Na Ficção Narrativa De Soror Maria Do Céu." Forma Breve, vol. 3, 2, p. 121-33.

Annotation from Soror Maria do Céu contributed by Chandrelyn Kraczek:

Sara Augusto discusses fables in baroque literature as well as the ways that Soror Maria do Céu presents her fables (always with the fable coming first followed by a paragraph of explanation/moralization). She discusses fables in Aves Ilustradas, Obras Várias e Admiráveis (specifically “Metaphors das Flores”), as well as a few other stories and fables. Augusto argues that true to the baroque allegorical tradition, Soror Maria do Céu uses fables to teach morals to her readers⏤other nuns and inhabitants of the convent. Augusto notes that it is through presenting the story and then immediately presenting the moral or the lesson to be learned that makes the works of Soror Maria do Céu particularly good examples of baroque allegorical didactical fiction.

Augusto, Sara. "O Papagaio Ilustrado: Lição e Exemplo Na Ficção Barroca." Máthesis, vol. 14, 2, p. 137-48.

Annotation from Soror Maria do Céu contributed by Chandrelyn Kraczek:

In this article Sara Augusto argues that the use of allegory in Soror Maria do Céu's short stories and other works provide some of the best examples in Portuguese literature of the use of parables for the purpose of educating and inspiring its audience. She begins by discussing various examples of didactic fables in Soror Maria do Céu's writing and then examines the use of fables in Aves Ilustradas, more specifically “O papagaio à rodeira.” Augusto notes that the use of allegory is a characteristic of baroque literature and that by creating tales and fables with clear, didactic moral lessons, Soror Maria do Céu is contributing and dialoguing with this important aspect of baroque literature. Her fables about birds and her commentary on how they act correlate directly with how a righteous nun should live and act in the convent setting.

Augusto, Sara. "A Predestinada Peregrina: Dos Enganos Do Bosque Aos Desenganos Do Rio." Máthesis, vol. 17, 2, p. 157-74.

Annotation from Soror Maria do Céu contributed by Perla Escobar:

Sara Augusto explains the literary style of allegories with the intent to introduce Maria do Céu’s outstanding work in Enganos do Bosque, Desenganos do Rio. The author provides a detailed antithesis between good and evil, and how these are illustrated by the Pastor and and the forest. Maria do Céu’s work represents the quest to heaven through the Peregrina who faces opposition to find the living water.

Céu, Soror Maria do. Aves Ilustradas. Lisbon, Miguel Rodrigues, 1.

Barbosa Machado, Diôgo. "D. Izabel Senhorinha da Sylva." Bibliotheca Lusitana Historica, Critica, e Cronologica. Na Qual Se Comprehende a Noticia Dos Authores Portuguezes, e Das Obras, Que Compuseraõ Desde o Tempo Da Promulgação Da Ley Da Graça Até o Tempo Prezente, vol. 2, Lisbon, Ignacio Rodrigues, 1, p. 926.

Annotation from Soror Maria do Céu contributed by Chandrelyn Kraczek:

This is an entry about her sister Isabel Senhorinha da Silva, however it mentions Soror Maria do Céu and provides information about their parents: their names, and some genealogy on her mother’s side. It notes that their grandfather was an Ambassador to England and that their family was of the noble class.

Barbosa Machado, Diôgo. "Sor Maria do Céu." Bibliotheca Lusitana Historica, Critica, e Cronologica. Na Qual Se Comprehende a Noticia Dos Authores Portuguezes, e Das Obras, Que Compuseraõ Desde o Tempo Da Promulgação Da Ley Da Graça Até o Tempo Prezente, vol. 3, Lisbon, Ignacio Rodrigues, 1, p. 420-21.

Annotation from Soror Maria do Céu contributed by Chandrelyn Kraczek:

An encyclopedic entry on Soror Maria do Céu, providing her birth date, information on the similarity between herself and her identical twin sister, the age and date she entered the convent, and the responsibilities she was given while there. It also notes that she became quite erudite during her free time and that she published under a pseudonym. It also provides a list of her works as well as where and when they were published. 

Barbosa Machado, Diôgo. "Sor Maria do Céu." Bibliotheca lusitana historica, critica, e cronologica. Na qual se comprehende a noticia dos authores portuguezes, e das obras, que compuseraõ desde o tempo da promulgação da Ley da Graça até o tempo prezente, vol. 4, Lisbon, Ignacio Rodrigues, 1, p. 252.

Annotation from Soror Maria do Céu contributed by Chandrelyn Kraczek:

Gives the date of her death as well as age at the time of death.

Barrera y Leirado, Cayetano Alberto de la. Catálogo bibliográfico y biográfico del teatro antiguo español, desde sus orígenes hasta mediados del siglo XVIII. Madrid, Gredos, 1.

Annotation from Soror Maria do Céu contributed by Chandrelyn Kraczek:

Entry written in Spanish providing information about her birth date, the similarities between her sister and her, and the names of her parents. It gives the date she entered the convent and that she was abbess 2 times. It also notes that she published in Lisbon under a pseudonym.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

Small entry with mostly biographical information, including the names of her most published works along with the years that they were published.

Barros, Teresa Leitão de. Escritoras de Portugal: Génio feminino revelado na Literatura Portuguesavol. 1, . Lisbon, 1.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

Critique of Sóror Violante’s work that reviews the mystic and ascetic aspects of her poetry. Discusses some of the different works she wrote and the themes within them, specifically mentioning love and passion. Her success as a writer is also talked about, showing that she was highly esteemed by many in her time.

Barros, Teresa Leitão de. "Maria do Céu." Escritoras de Portugal: Génio feminino revelado na Literatura Portuguesa, vol. 1, Lisbon, 1, p. 149-62.

Annotation from Soror Maria do Céu contributed by Chandrelyn Kraczek:

De Barros dedicates this section of her book to detailing some of the biographic information available about Soror Maria do Céu including information about her family. She discusses her work and inspirations. She notes as well the reaction of censors to Maria do Céu’s work.

Veronica Bennett. "Order of St. Clare." Looking Good: A Visual Guide to the Nun's Habit, London, GraphicDesign&, 2, p. 41.

Annotation from Soror Maria do Céu contributed by Chandrelyn Kraczek:

This book details the habits of nuns from several different families. It provides visual images of what the habits likely looked like as well as descriptions of each element of the habit including descriptions of the color, the neck adornment, the belt or cord, the rosary, and the shoes used by each order discussed. It also provides some context to the order as well as interesting facts about them.

Filipa de Almada. . Lisbon, Herman de Campos, 1.

. Cancionero general de Hernando del Castillo. Valencia, Cristóbal Koffman, 1.

Céu, Soror Maria do. "Adagios." Enganos do Bosque, Desenganos do Rio. I e II parte, vol. 8, Lisbon, Oficina de Antonio Isidoro da Fonseca, 1, .

Céu, Sóror Violante de. Parnaso Lusitano de Divinos e Humanos Versosvol. 1, . Lisbon, Miguel Rodrigues, 1.

Commire, Anne, and Klezmer, Deborah. "Maria do Céu." Dictionary of Women Worldwide: 25,000 Women through the Ages, vol. 2, Yorkin, 2, p. 1225.

Annotation from Soror Maria do Céu contributed by Chandrelyn Kraczek:

This book provides a short entry on Soror Maria do Céu providing biographic information including variations of her name, the names of her parents, her birth date, the age she entered the convent, and a few of the works she wrote. It also notes that she often wrote in Spanish.

Commire, Anne, and Deborah Klezmer. Dictionary of Women Worldwide: 25,000 Women through the Ages.vol. 2, . Yorkin, 2.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

Very short record of biographical information and written works.

Charnon-Deutsch, Lou. "Concepción Arenal and the Nineteenth-Century Spanish Debates about Women’s Sphere and Education." Recovering Spain's Feminist Tradition, New York, Modern Language Association, 2, p. 198-216.

Corrêa, Eloísa Porto. "Amor profano, morte e amor divino na poesia de Sóror Violante do Céu." Uniabeu, vol. 8, no. 18, 2, p. 321-33.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

Corrêa analyzes some of the earlier poetry written and published by Sóror Violante do Céu in Rimas Várias, which focused on a more secular, temporal love. Corrêa goes on to provide an analysis of some of Sóror Violante’s later work, published posthumously in Parnaso Lusitano de Divinos e Humanos Versos, in which Sóror Violante expressed a more sober, divine love of God. After the separate analysis, Corrêa puts the different styles and subjects together to compare and contrast them, looking specifically at how they approach the topic of death. Corrêa highlights Sóror Violante’s reorientation from profane to divine poetry.

Costa e Silva, José Maria da. Ensaio biographico-critico sobre os melhores poetas portuguezes.vol. 8, . Lisbon, Silviana, 1.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

Chapter dedicated to Sóror Violante and her work, including a brief biography and a list of works attributed to her. Contains a few excerpts from her compositions and an analysis of each, discussing the various themes present and why her work was significant. Costa e Silva also mentions the influence of Luis de Góngora on her compositions as well as the presence of Sapphic writing.

Costa, António da. "Sóror Violante do Céu." A Mulher em Portugal Obra Posthuma; Publ. Em Beneficio de Uma Creança, Lisbon, Typ. Da Comp. Nacional Ed, 1, p. 92-103.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Perla Escobar:

This biographical text states that Violante’s date of birth is May 30, 1601. This text is relevant as Costa includes a timeline of her first works and a biographical description that makes connections between her literary works and her life. This is accomplished through a brief analysis of two romances from Rimas Várias, O retrato e O coração. Furthermore, Costa declares that through her writing, one learns that Violante do Ceu was a religious woman, but also a worldly person, “mulher da terra.” Costa describes her as being naturally talented in poetry and possessing natural intelligence. She was taught how to sing and play instruments, but she was not taught poetry by the nuns, so it is astonishing how she was gifted in poetry.   

Couto, Anabela Galhardo. "Labirintos De Eros: Ruptura e Transgressão No Discurso Amoroso De Violante Do Céu." Mulheres Que Escrevem, Mulheres Que Lêem: Repensar a Literatura Pelo Género, Lisbon, 101 Noites, 2, p. 53-88.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

Commences with three sonnets, one madrigal, two décimas, and one romance, all from Rimas Várias. The chapter goes on to discuss feminist literature and writers in the seventeenth century, detailing female authorship and its role in the Baroque era. It then goes into more depth on Sóror Violante and the important part she played in developing the Portuguese Baroque style. Different themes in her work are explored and critiqued, including the concepts of eroticism and female friendship.  

Cueva y Silva, Leonor de la. . Madrid, .

Dugaw, Dianne, and Amanda Powell. "Sapphic Self-Fashioning in the Baroque Era: Women's Petrarchan Parody in English and Spanish." Studies in Eighteenth Century Culture, vol. 35, no. 1, 2, p. 127-60.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

Dugaw and Powell explain the style of Sapphic poetry and compare it to the Petrarchan convention of early-modern Europe. They go on to talk about Sóror Violante do Céu, Katherine Phillips, Aphra Behn, and Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, giving an in-depth description of how these women embodied Sapphism in their respective works. The authors discuss at length the elements that Sóror Violante employed to distinguish her work as Sapphic and the erotic nature of the poetry she wrote. Throughout the article, as the other writers are addressed, Dugaw and Powell link their writing back to Sóror Violante’s, highlighting the similarities between them. The appendix includes a sample text from each of the women including English translations when needed.  

Egual, María. . Madrid, .

Elman, Linda L. "“Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Armesinda Sets Her Own Parameters in La Firmeza En La Ausencia by Leonor De La Cueva y Silva.”." Engendering the Early Modern Stage: Women Playwrights in the Spanish Empire, UP of the South, 1, .

Annotation from Leonor de la Cueva y Silva:

In her essay, Linda Elman writes that women writers in Golden Age Spain were in a minuscule minority, so it was difficult for their voices to be heard. Regardless, Leonor de la Cueva y Silva tries to subvert stereotypes by creating not only a faithful woman, Armesinda, but also a faithful man with the ironic name of Don Juan. The playwright uses speech to break down gender stereotypes, empowering Armesinda by giving her eight major monologues and inverting gendered speech that was typical of the time, such as the King comparing himself to a rose. Elman also argues that Cueva’s own voice and questions about female authorship come through in the play. 

Barbeito Carnero, Maria Isabel. "Feminist Attitudes and Expression in Golden Age Spain: From Teresa de Jesús to María de Guevara." Recovering Spain's Feminist Tradition, New York, Modern Language Association, 2, p. 48-68.

Ferreira, Maria do Céu de Sousa. "«Desde El Parnaso Os Escrivo» : Cartas De Uma Monja Escritora : Edição e Análise Da Correspondência Manuscrita De Soror Maria Do Céu à Duquesa De Medinaceli." Repositório Aberto da Universidade do Porto, Porto, 2, .

Annotation from Soror Maria do Céu contributed by Chandrelyn Kraczek:

This is a thesis dedicated to a series of letters written by Soror Maria do Céu to the Duquesa Medinaceli of Madrid and a few other aristocratic senhoras of that same city. It is composed first of an examination and analysis of the letters written to the Duquesa Medinaceli and followed by a section dedicated to presenting the letters and poems exchanged themselves. The author notes that the letters from the Duquesa have not been found, so only half of the conversation remains to us, the half written by Soror Maria do Céu. 

Flores, Conceição, et al. Dicionário de Escritoras Portuguesas: Das Origens à Atualidade. Florianópolis, Editora Mulheres, 2.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

Summary of who she was and what she was known for, including a list of her written works.

Fox, Gwyn. "Politics, Patronage, Parentage." Subtle Subversions: Reading Golden Age Sonnets by Iberian Women, The Catholic University of America Press, 2, p. 21-72.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

This chapter examines the importance of social status in the seventeenth century and looks at specific sonnets by Sóror Violante do Céu and Leonor de la Cueva y Silva that allowed them to gain more recognition and favor from nobility. Fox expresses that Sóror Violante achieved this in different ways, such as exploiting her friendships and flattery. Various styles and themes of poetry that Sóror Violante used are explored, looking at specific poems and reviewing their socio-political advantages. It is also noted how Sóror Violante used her poetry to be able to appropriately engage in matters of Church and State as well as show off her poetic prowess.

Frances, Teresa. "4 The Rule of St. Clare." Joy in All Things: A Franciscan Companion, Norwich, Canterbury Press Norwich, 2, p. 48-49.

Annotation from Soror Maria do Céu contributed by Chandrelyn Kraczek:

This is a book about the order of St. Clare including a history of the saint herself as well as the order she founded. It includes an explanation of the rule of St. Clare that Franciscan nuns were to follow. It gives the date the order was founded and a few details of their lifestyle.

Gama, Elizabete. "Ficha De Casa Religiosa." PROJECTO LXCONVENTOS - BASE DE DADOS, Fundação Para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, 2, .

Annotation from Soror Maria do Céu contributed by Chandrelyn Kraczek:

This website provides information about the convent of Esperança including other names by which the convent was known, the history of its construction, function as a convent, and eventual use as a fire station. It also notes that it was a Franciscan convent practicing the order of St. Clare.

Halling, Anna-Lisa. "Upending Hegemonic Masculinity in Soror Maria Do Céu’s Clavel, y Rosa." Journal of Lusophone Studies, vol. 3, no. 1, 2, p. 50-69.

Annotation from Soror Maria do Céu contributed by Chandrelyn Kraczek:

This article explains how Soror Maria do Céu inverts gender roles typical of her time in her masculine and feminine characters in her play Clavel e Rosa. In an age where men were lauded as courageous, virtuous, and authoritative, she portrays them as arrogant, self-centered, and narcissistic. Soror Maria do Céu thus calls into question the validity of the claims of the time that men have only positive characteristics. It is the man who exemplifies women’s gender norms that eventually wins Mary’s hand, further calling into question the authority of the gender norms of the age.

Halling, Anna-Lisa. "Soror Maria Do Céu's Virgin Mary and the Male Gaze." Via Spiritus, vol. 26, 2, p. 165-83.

Annotation from Soror Maria do Céu contributed by Chandrelyn Kraczek:

This article details how Soror Maria do Céu creates a female character that is capable of escaping the male gaze in her play Clavel e Rosa. Rosa, a representation of the virgin Mary, acts with authority in choosing which suitor will be her husband, examining the qualities and attributes of each. In this way Soror Maria do Céu subverts the gender norms of the age and creates a female protagonist who is not subject to the male gaze/authority but one who is of herself the authority. The example that Soror Maria do Céu provides in the character of Rosa to her companion conventual nuns is not the passive Mary seen post council of Trent, but a Mary of action, power, and authority.

Halling, Anna-Lisa. "An Edition of Sor Violante do Ceo's Villancicos." Brigham Young University, Department of Spanish and Portuguese, 2, p. 1-517.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

Establishes a detailed biography and then provides an analysis of convent writing, which includes a comparison between the work of Sóror Violante and Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz. Halling gives a description of Parnaso Lusitano and the different works found in it and then explains the history and form of the villancico, after which she examines more closely the theatricality of Sóror Violante’s villancicos. There are 395 villancicos included in this work compiled and edited by Halling.

Halling, Anna-Lisa. "Space, Performance, and Subversion in Sóror Violante do Céu’s Villancicos." Comedia Performance, vol. 14, no. 1, 2, p. 71-105.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

Halling gives a description of the various performance elements of Sóror Violante’s villancicos, using them to explain the significance of those works and why they should be more widely studied. She specifically discusses the aspects of the villancicos that make it clear that they were written to be performed, not just read, and mentions the opportunities that the works gave to religious women that they would not have had extramuros, or outside the convent walls. The performance spaces within the convents are also touched on, giving an idea of what it may have looked like as the nuns performed these works for each other. Halling also explains the subtle subversions of gender norms at the time, explaining how the nuns empowered themselves through theatre in a way that would not have been possible outside of their cloisters.

Bolufer Peruga, Mónica. "Inés Joyes y Blake: Una Ilustrada, entre privado y público,." Mujeres para la historia: Figuras destacadas del primer feminismo, Madrid, Abada, 2, p. 28-55.

Lauer, A. Robert. "La Firmeza En El Ausencia De Leonor De La Rúa Cueva Y Silva: De Profeminismo a Speculum Principum.." Bulletin of the Comediantes, 2, .

Annotation from Leonor de la Cueva y Silva:

Lauer lays out the history and political climate that Leonor de la Cueva experienced and reacted against in her play, citing misogynistic traditions from Aristotle to many different Renaissance and Golden Age thinkers and writers. He includes several different psychological and philosophical studies on women at the time, as well as a list and explanation of the “celebrated women” that Cueva also includes in her work.  He claims that La firmeza en el ausencia is a “thesis comedy” that rejects the notion of women being weak-willed and inferior by exaggerating the faithfulness and steadfastness of Armesinda. 

Leturio, Nieves Baranda. "Violante Do Céu y Los Avatares Políticos De La Restauração." Iberoamericana (2001-), vol. 7, no. 28, 2, p. 137-50.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Perla Escobar:

Baranda Leturio provides a detailed comparison about how Soror Violante do Ceu remained silent in her works during the political tension of Portugal’s independence from Spain. The author states that Violante did not explicitly write about the political changes and conflicts taking place at that time. Instead, Baranda Leturio claims that Parnaso Lusitano was written for religious purposes while some of the sonnets in RimasVarías is a cultural text that focuses on important kings and queens with the intent to promote the restoration of the Portuguese monarchy.

Cueva y Silva, Leonor de la Rúa, et al.. Libro de romances nuevos con su tabla puesto al principio por el orden del ABC hecho en el año de 1592 [manuscript]. Madrid, 1.

Machado, Diogo Barbosa. Bibliotheca lusitana historica, critica e cronologicavol. 3, . Lisbon, Ignacio Rodrigues, 1.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

Brief biography detailing a few important life events and a list of works composed during her life.

Martín, Adrienne L. "The Rhetoric of Female Friendship in the Lyric of Sor Violante del Cielo." Calíope: Journal of the Society for Renaissance and Baroque Hispanic Poetry, vol. 3, no. 2, 1, p. 57-71.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

The article begins by exploring the concept and trivialization of female friendship, particularly in literature. Martín compares the treatment of female friendship with that of male friendship, which is often more glorified. The author proceeds, going into more detail on Sóror Violante’s work, providing an analysis of the way female friendship is presented and considering the different ways it can be interpreted. She touches on the idea of Sapphic writing and the notion of using female friendship to liberate oneself from masculine literary authority.

Martins, Mario. "Sor Maria Do Céu e a Lenda De Santo Doroteia." Itinerarium: Revista Quadrimestral De Cultura, vol. 7, 1, p. 390-95.

Annotation from Soror Maria do Céu contributed by Chandrelyn Kraczek:

This article explains the legend of St. Dorothy and St. Theophilus: Theophilus asks Dorothy to bring back roses and violets from the paradise of her spouse (Cristo). After she is martyred and in paradise, she sends a four year old boy with roses and violets back to Theophilus to prove that paradise exists. Besides this explanation, this article also includes a version of the legend written by Soror Maria do Céu in castilian verse.

Mendes, Margarida Vieira. "Apresentação." Rimas várias, Lisbon, Editorial Presença, 1, p. 7-17.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

Includes a breakdown of the different forms of poems included in the work, the languages in which they were written, and a list of some other known works by Sóror Violante. There is also a biographical section, detailing some important parts of her life, as well as a commentary on what made her such an important writer of her time.

Mendes, Margarida Vieira. "A Poesia De Sóror Violante Do Céu (Excerto)." História e Antologia Da Literatura Portuguesa: Século XVII, Edição Da Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian Serviço De Educação e Bolsas, 2, p. 33-38, 67-73.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

Mendes examines in-depth the poetic styles of Sóror Violante do Céu in Rimas Várias, discussing principally panegyric and amorous works. She talks about the extensive vocabulary used in the poems and how Sóror Violante used it to participate in the Baroque style of the time. The figures of speech are also noted and explained, going into detail of the connection between Sóror Violante’s writing and the works of others of the time period. Included are a few sonnets, décimas, romances, and villancicos.

Morujão, Isabel. "O Tema Do Eremitismo Na Literatura Conventual Feminina : S. Paulo Eremita Em A Preciosa De Soror Maria Do Céu : Dos Relatos Em Prosa à Narrativa Épica." Via Spiritus : Revista De História Da Espiritualidade e Do Sentimento Religioso, vol. 9, 2, p. 255-86.

Annotation from Soror Maria do Céu contributed by Perla Escobar:

This article analyzes the figure of S. Paulo Eremita in Maria do Céu’s epic poem, Primaz do Ermo, part of her work, A Preciosa. Obras de Misericórdia Parte II. Morujão provides a background foundation of the importance of eremitism during the 16th and 17th centuries, and an analysis of Maria’s heroic dedication to this saint. The author achieves this by contrasting hagiographic sources that enclose information about S. Paulo Eremita’s life.

Morujão, Isabel. "A César o Que é De César: Acerca Da Atribuição Ao Padre Simão Vaz De Camões, SJ, De Dois Textos Editados Em A Preciosa De Soror Maria Do Céu." Revista Da Faculdade De Letras - Línguas e Literaturas, vol. 20, no. 1, 2, p. 297-303.

Annotation from Soror Maria do Céu contributed by Perla Escobar:

Morujão investigates the hypotheses given by Mário Sá, who argues that two heroic poems, Poemas Heróicos de Simão Vaz de Camões, were stolen by Maria do Céu. Morujão illustrates who she believes is the real author through the examination of the editing and publishing process of A Preciosa. The author declares that the defining factor of attributing the poems to Maria do Céu is the structure of the poem, having five and not seven cantos.

Morujão, Isabel. Contributo Para Uma Bibliografia Cronológica Da Literatura Monástica Feminina Portuguesa Dos Séculos XVII e XVIII: (Impressos). Centro De Estudos De História Religiosa, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, 1.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

Catalog of Monastic Literature written by women in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and published between 1610 and 1994. Includes publishing information for all of the works.

Morujão, Isabel. "Incidências De ‘Esperança Mística’ Num Solilóquio De Sóror Violante Do Céu ‘Para a Agonia Da Morte’." Os "Últimos Fins" Na Cultura Ibérica (XV-XVIII), Porto, Instituto De Cultura Portuguesa, 1, p. 205-35.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

The article starts by looking at the Catholic idea of life after death and the effect that literature had on how people viewed it. It then examines a poem by Sóror Violante entitled Romance a Christo crucificado, na agonia da morte. Morujão explains how this poem describes a “práxis de morte” that deals with mystical theology, textual typology, and the conception of death. She addresses confession and communion, two of the main aspects of a Christian’s death, and uses excerpts from the text to further explain the meaning behind Sóror Violante’s writing.

Morujão, Isabel. "Entre o profano e o religioso: processos de divinização na poesia de Soror Violante do Céu." Península: revista de estudos ibéricos, 2, p. 277-87.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Perla Escobar:

This article describes Violante’s reorientation from writing profane poetry about love during her youth in Rimas Várias to writing religiously in Parnaso Lusitano. To illustrate this, Morujão fragments Violante’s anthological work with the goal to show how Violante’s writing style was established in her early works and how it continues in her religious poems. Rimas Várias and Parnaso Lusitano follow similar syntactic structures, lexemes, and poetic style that depict different time periods in her life thus exhibiting the principle of contrafactum.  

Morujão, Isabel, and Rosa Maria Martelo. "Subsídios para uma reedição de Rimas Várias de Soror Violante do Céu." Revista da Faculdade de Letras-Línguas e Literaturas, 2, p. 351-64.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Perla Escobar:

The authors state that many literary reviews and analyses have reduced or not taken into account completely the poetic quality in Soror Violante’s works. Although Ruão’s edition of Rimas Várias has been considered as the matrix of previous collections, Morujão and Martelo assert that through a comparative analysis, there is a contrast in the textual transmission of Rimas Várias. Thus, it is possible that a previous edition before Ruão’s exists. Furthermore, Morujão illustrates the variants found in six  different collections by compiling a corpus of Rimas Várias. This contrast is achieved by providing a detailed comparison of 25 compositions that include the following texts: Edição de Ruão, Fénix Renascida, Fénix Renascida II, Postilhão de Apoio I,  Postilhão de Apoio II, and Ms. Braga.

Muhana, Adma. "Gregório de Matos, beato." Estudos Portugueses e Africanos, vol. 27, 2, p. 47-60.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Perla Escobar:

In this article, Matos analyses four texts about imminent death, and among those, is “Romance a Christo crucificado, na agonia da morte” by Violante do Céu. This poem is dedicated to those alive who will eventually die, and it describes the agony as one is about to die as there is no time to plead for mercy for one's actions. This terrorizing and introspective moment is illustrated by including the inconsistencies of life, the particular use of language, the juxtaposition of ideas, and homonymy. Matos interprets that the intent is for readers to be prepared for the final judgement by having more to offer than owing, “para que cheguem na conta do Juízo Final com mais crédito do que débito,” through humility and repentance.

Navarro, Ana. Antología Poética De Escritoras De Los Siglos XVI y XVII. Castalia, 1.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

Recounts her literary style with a brief mention of her life in the convent. Includes Sonnet IX from Parnaso Lusitano and one of the romances from Rimas Várias.

Olivares, Julián, and Elizabeth S. Boyce. "Sor Violante Del Cielo (y De La Tierra); The Subversion of Amorous Lyrical Discourse." A Ricardo Gullón: Sus Discípulos, ALDEEU, 1, p. 189-201.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

The article begins by talking about the difference between women who enter convents early in life and those who enter later, such as Sóror Violante, and the effects that this difference had on her poetry. It continues, introducing the concept of amorous discourse in poetry and examining Sóror Violante’s subversion of it. Olivares and Boyce discuss poems written by Sóror Violante and the amorous themes within them, noting the presence of Sapphic writing while also being conscious of the possible reasoning behind such writing, aside from a simple expression of lesbian love.

Bolufer Peruga, Mónica, and Morant Deusa, Isabel. "On Women’s Reason, Education and Love: Women and Men of the Enlightenment in Spain and France." Gender & History, vol. 10, no. 2, 1, p. 183–216.

Péres, Domingo Garcia. Catalogo razonado biográfico y bibliográfico de los autores portugueses que escribieron en castellano. Madrid, Colegio Nacional de Sordo-Mudos y de Ciegos, 1.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Perla Escobar:

Biographical description that exemplifies why Violante do Céu was one of the best writers of her era. It also provides a list of her works and a short poem to praise her.  

Pérez, Janet, and Maureen Ihrie. The Feminist Encyclopedia of Spanish Literaturevol. 1, . Greenwood Press, 2.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

Biography and analysis of some common themes in her writing, citing a few of her sonnets by name.

Perim, Damião de Froes. "40 - Soror Maria do Ceo." Theatro Heroino, Abcedario Historico, e Catalogo Das Mulheres Illustres Em Armas, Letras, Acçoens Heroicas, e Artes Liberaes, vol. 2, Lisbon, Oficina Sylviana, 1, p. 242-45.

Annotation from Soror Maria do Céu contributed by Chandrelyn Kraczek:

Perim wrote an encyclopedic entry providing birth date, baptismal name and the names of Soror Maria do Céu's parents. He notes that she was born with an identical twin sister. He also gives the year she entered the Convento de Esperança, that she was abbess two times and the pseudonym she used for her early works.  This entry also gives a list of the works she published along with the date they were published.

Perym, Damião Froes. Theatro heroino, abcedario historico, e catalogo das mulheres illustres em armas, letras, acçoens heroicas, e artes liberaesvol. 2, . Lisbon, Officina da Musica de Theotonio Antunes Lima, 1.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

Short description of her life, talent, and others’ appreciation of her writing. Discusses a few of her works and achievements as well as how beloved she was by members of the royal family and the people in general.

Petruzello, Melissa. "Poor Clare." Encyclopædia Britannica, 2, .

Annotation from Soror Maria do Céu contributed by Chandrelyn Kraczek:

An entry describing how poor clares, or nuns of the order of St. Clare were to lead their life, including manual labor, contemplation in silence for many hours of the day, and vows of poverty. It notes that the order of St. Clare is known to be one of the most austere orders for nuns. 

Pociña López, Andrés José. Sóror Violante Do Céu (1607-1693). Ediciones del Orto, 1.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

Starts off with a chronological chart detailing important events in Sóror Violante’s life and in the cultural and socio-political world around her, then moving on to a more detailed biography. There is a thorough analysis of her life and works, including the conservation of her writing, the idea of conceptismo, her erotic, religious, eulogistic, and nationalist poetry, and includes criticism of her work as well. In the end, there is a selection of 22 of her written works.

Soror Tomásia Caetana de Santa Maria. . .

Maria Egual. Poesías de la illustre señora Doña María Egual y Miguel, marquesa de Castellfort [manuscript]. Madrid, .

Powell, Amanda. "'¡Oh qué diversas estamos,/dulce prenda, vos y yo!' Multiple Voicings in Love Poems to Women by Marcia Belisarda, Catalina Clara Ramírez de Gusmán, and Sor Violante del Cielo." Studies of women's poetry of the golden age: "Tras el espejo la musa escribe", Tamesis Book Limited, 2, p. 51-80.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Perla Escobar:

This article synthesizes texts by three writers, among them Violante do Ceu, with the goal to delineate other functions and messages expressed in the passages. Marcia Belisarda, Catalina Clara Ramírez de Guzmán, and Violante do Céu’s works address gender oppression and inequality to passionately give voice to women. In regards to Violante’s work, Powell’s analysis helps readers see beyond what could be in first instance as obvious by declaring that the eroticism found in passages of romances—the seductive relationship among three women—can translate into the portrayal of feminine liberation from masculine literary authority.

Ramalho, António, et al. "Violante do Céu, Sóror." Escritoras, , .

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

Online catalog dedicated to Portuguese women writers before 1900.

. . .

Remédios, Mendes dos. Escritoras doutros tempos: Extratos das obras de Violante do Ceo, Maria do Ceo, Madalena da Glória. Coimbra, França Amado Editor, 1.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

Entry detailing some biographical information and what she wrote about, with a few of her works integrated and a list of her known publications.

Rojas, Victor Julio. Vida y Obra de Violante do Céu. Indiana University, 1.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Perla Escobar:

In his dissertation, Rojas provides a thorough analysis of Violante’s writing as he organizes and explains her life, the cultural implications during her time period, her secular works, her religious writings, and the main literary elements in her poetry. The author states that Violante’s poetry often addresses disillusionment during this life in love, death, and vanity with the hope of preparing for life after death as a way to portray not only her personal concerns but also those shared by society. Furthermore, Violante’s writing encompasses a great variety of stylistic devices among them: rhythmic patterns, tone, and lexical variation. Rojas concludes that Violante’s works have their greatest worth when symbiosis is reached between writing style and the subject being addressed. Rojas’ research of Violante’s life and works aim to individually highlight unknown writers as a medium to better understand the issues of a previous time period.

Rowan, Mary M. "Seventeenth-Century France and Portugal: Reciprocal Literary Influences." Papers on French Seventeenth-Century Literature, vol. 9, no. 16, 2, p. 341-45.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

Rowan discusses the literary theme of a woman lamenting her lover’s desertion. She supplies a short biography of Sóror Violante do Céu and explains her relation to French literature, having published her work Rimas várias in France. Rowan links the printing of Portuguese poetry in France to the help that the French extended to Portugal as they tried to gain independence from Spain and asserts that Sóror Violante could have published Rimas to celebrate the revival of the monarchy and nationhood of Portugal. Rowan also mentions important aspects of Sóror Violante’s poetry, such as elegiac strains, found in Latin poetry, and melancholy tinged with longing.

Serrano y Sanz, Manuel. Apuntes para una biblioteca de escritoras españolas desde el año 1401 al 1833vol. 1, . Madrid, Sucesores de Rivadeneyra, 1.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Perla Escobar:

This document provides a short analysis about Violante’s writing, more specifically, about her passionate poems inspired by love.

Silva, Fabio Mario da. "A Literatura Como Instrução. Uma Leitura De Metáforas Das Flores De Soror Maria Do Céu." e-Scrita Revista Do Curso De Letras Da UNIABEU, vol. 5, no. 3, 2, p. 126–34.

Annotation from Soror Maria do Céu contributed by Chandrelyn Kraczek:

This article examines Soror Maria do Céu’s work, Metáfora das Flores. Da Silva proposes that flowers are used in this work to represent the behaviors of people and their relationships with one another. He states that Soror Maria do Céu writes in this way as a form of instruction to other nuns and conventual habitants about how they should behave in the convent. He further submits that Soror Maria do Céu uses literature to propagate and reinforce monastic teachings in the form of allegories and metaphors. 

Silvestrini, Regina Lúcia Gonçalves Pereira. "Do Desengano do Sonho da Vida: Sóror Mariana e Sóror Violante do Céu - Uma Leitura das Intertextualidades." No Limite dos Sentidos, Niterói, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 2, p. 1871-80.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

This chapter starts off by establishing the concept of the Baroque style in the seventeenth century. It then introduces Sóror Violante do Céu and Sóror Mariana Alcoforado, giving some background on both the writers and their works. The author then introduces the purpose of the essay, to establish and explain the intertextuality of two poems by Sóror Violante and a work by Sóror Mariana. Silvestrini continues, providing a comparison between the two women’s works, particularly noting the disillusionment of love and melancholy tones from the writing.

Bernarda Ferreira de Lacerda. . Lisbon, Mathias Rodrigues, 1.

Soufas, Teresa S.. "“The Absence of Desire in Leonor De La Cueva's La firmeza en el ausencia.”." Gender, Identity, and Representation in Spain's Golden Age, Bucknell UP, 2, .

Annotation from Leonor de la Cueva y Silva:

This chapter of the book explores the theme of desire in La firmeza en la ausencia. Soufas analyzes the many different layers of material, amorous, and sexual desire across the characters and throughout the play, as well as their legitimacy and their relationship to each other. She also shows how Leonor de la Cueva highlights the different reactions of the male characters and the female characters when confronting unfulfilled desires.

Soufas, Teresa Scott. "Bodies of Authority: El conde Partinuplés (Caro) and La firmeza en la ausencia (Cueva)." Dramas of Distinction: A Study of Plays by Golden Age Women, UP of Kentucky, Lexington, 1, .

Annotation from Leonor de la Cueva y Silva:

The chapter of this book that talks about Ana Caro and Leonor de la Cueva analyzes how each of their plays break down the male approach to authority—a strict adherence to hierarchy and rules being prioritized over relationships—and shows the virtues of the female approach to authority, being more horizontal and relationship-based. It argues that in La firmeza en el ausencia, Armesinda rejects the stereotype of female fickleness and shows the complexity of the female experience. Because at the end of the play all the female characters re-enter their gender roles by getting married, the play is not revolutionary in nature but rather serves to expose the flaws of the male approach to authority without necessarily replacing it. 

Souza, Lucas Agostini de. "Introdução à obra poética de Sóror Violante do Céu." REGRASP:Revista para Graduandos - Interdisciplinar, 2, p. 61-67.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Perla Escobar:

This is a brief article that introduces beginners to baroque-style literature by focusing on seventeenth-century Portuguese feminine poetry through Soror Violante’s work. Agostini’s article is another relevant source for biographical information about Soror Violante, and it also includes a short literary analysis of Soneto 22 de amor profano and Soneto ao amor divino, which describe the salvation and condemnation of men in the type of love they choose to have.

Teyssier, Paul. "As influências estrangeiras." História da Língua Portuguesa, Martins Fontes, 1, p. 32-33.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Sarah-Jane Christensen:

Gives a description of the foreign influence on the Portuguese language, principally from Spain and France. Explains why, in the past, many Portuguese people often spoke more than one language.

Pina Weissberger, Barbara F. "The Critics and Florencia Pinar: The Problem with Assigning Feminism to a Medieval Court Poet." Recovering Spain's Feminist Tradition, New York, Modern Language Association, 2, p. 31-41.

Bolufer, Mónica. "Translation and Intellectual Reflection in the Works of Enlightened Spanish Women: Inés Joyes (1731-1808)." Women Writing Back / Writing Women Back : Transnational Perspectives From the Late Middle Ages to the Dawn of the Modern Era, vol. 16, Leiden, Brill, 2, p. 327-45.

Urban Baños, Alba. "“Las Protagonistas Ideadas Por Dramaturgas: ¿Damas Que Desdicen De Su Nombre?”." Biblioteca Virtual Miguel De Cervantes, 2, .

Annotation from Leonor de la Cueva y Silva:

Alba Urban Baños explores the reason behind female playwrights making their protagonists either exemplary and decorus or unseemly and indecorous. She compares Leonor de la Cueva y Silva, Ana Caro, and Maria de Zayas, explaining that the comedies written by these and many other women share the common theme of reason vs. passion. In La firmeza en el ausencia, Armesinda is easily viewed as a decorous protagonist because of her virtue and faithfulness, while Ana Caro’s empress is also seen as decorous even though she has sexual relations before marriage. This proves that the judgement of decorous or indecorus female protagonists should be viewed through the other character’s reactions to them rather than the audience’s beliefs and prejudices. 

Maria da Felicidade do Couto Browne. . 1.

Voros, Sharon D.. "Armesinda's Dream: Leonor De La Cueva's Challenge to the Patriarchy in La Firmeza En La Ausencia." Monographic Review/Revista Monográfica, 1, .

Annotation from Leonor de la Cueva y Silva:

Sharon Voros is an authority on Leonor de la Cueva y Silva, and this article analyzes the dream that Armesinda has during the third act of the play La firmeza en el aucencia. She explains the dream in terms of Renaissance dream theory, as well as the Freudian paradigm. According to Voros, Cueva uses the dream state as a further protest against the power abuses of the patriarchy and the monarchy because it explores ideas of duplicity and consent and because it rejects the notion that women are more susceptible and weak-willed in the dream state. 

Voros, Sharon D.. "Leonor De La Cueva Rewrites Lope De Vega: Subverting the Silence in La Firmeza En La Ausencia and La Corona Merecida." Engendering the Early Modern Stage: Women Playwrights in the Spanish Empire, UP of the South, 1, .

Annotation from Leonor de la Cueva y Silva:

Sharon D. Voros compares Leonor de la Cueva’s play with Lope de Vega’s La corona merecida, showing how both pieces display a conservative proto-feminism that addresses concerns about a woman’s place in court. Both plays also have male desire as a driving force and women as objects of that desire that must react against it. Cueva’s character Armesinda and the way she exemplifies gender roles in order to take the moral high ground was greatly inspired by Lope de Vega, as well as much of the rest of her play.

Voros, Sharon D.. "Leonor's Library: The Last Will and Testament of Leonor De La Cueva y Silva." Hispanic Studies in Honor of Robert L. Fiore, Juan De La Cuesta, 2, .

Annotation from Leonor de la Cueva y Silva:

Sharon D. Voros explains her research about Leonor de la Cueva y Silva’s last will and testament and explains the significance of the discovery. She explains how the information in the will is structured, and how it sheds light on Leonor’s personal and literary life. Most notably, she lists the books that were in Leonor’s library and how each of them may have influenced her writings. This research is a treasure for anyone researching Leonor de la Cueva y Silva’s life and works. 

Wade, Jonathan William. "Anticipating and Remembering the Restoration: Sousa De Macedo, Violante Do Céu, and Manuel De Melo." Being Portuguese in Spanish: Reimagining Early Modern Iberian Literature, 1580-1640, vol. 78, West Lafayette, Purdue University Press, 2, p. 175-92.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Perla Escobar:

Wade provides historical background about language choice performed by Portuguese writers before and after Portugal’s independence from Spain in 1640, and its literary and political implications in regards to the support of portugalidade (Portugal’s nationalistic movement). This article focuses on the literary shift by three Portuguese writers, among them, Violante do Ceu, about addressing Portugal’s renewed present in the 1640s. In regards to Violante’s work, Wade interprets three sonnets by Sor Violante which characterize her patriotic feelings toward Portugal’s restoration. In particular, Violante’s choice of writing two sonnets to João IV in Portuguese, reflect her portugalidade.  

Wade, Jonathan William. "Flower, Metaphor, and Portugalidade: António de Sousa de Macedo and Mariana de Luna’s Complementary Use of Flores." Revista de Escritoras Ibéricas, no. 8, 2, p. 79-99.

Annotation from Soror Violante do Céu contributed by Perla Escobar:

In this article, Wade explains the connection between Violante do Céu, Sousa de Macedo and Luna as friends and writers. In her sonnets in Rimas Varias to Sousa de Macedo and Luna, Violante uses flowers as a metaphor referring to her friends’ works: Luna’s Ramalhete de flores and Antonio’s Flores de Espana. Wade also provides a brief literary analysis of Sor Violante do Céu’s  writing in regard to the Restoration.